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Selected Publications

    Articles in Refereed Journals

     

    Books, Chapters, and Monographs

     

    Articles Published in Refereed Journals and Technical Notes (* denotes student author)


    Articles in Refereed Journals (Submitted, in review, accepted or in press)

    1. Lo., J. C. F. and Z.-L. Yang, 2013: Dynamical Downscaling of Future Climate Projection: Is Nudging of Large-Scale Forcing Fields Better than Standard Initial and Lateral Boundary Condition Approach? Geophys. Res. Lett. (submitted). [pdf]

     

    Books, Chapters, and Monographs (Refereed)

    1. Brun, E., Z.-L. Yang, R. Essery, and J. Cohen, 2008: Snow-cover parameterization and modeling, in Snow and Climate, Edited by R. L. Armstrong and E. Martin, Cambridge University Press, 125-180.

    2. Yang, Z.-L., 2004: Modeling land surface processes in short-term weather and climate studies, in Observations, Theory, and Modeling of Atmospheric Variability, (ed. X. Zhu), World Scientific Series on Meteorology of East Asia, Vol. 3, World Scientific Publishing Corporation, Singapore, 288-313. [pdf]

    3. Yang, Z.-L., 2008: Description of recent snow models, in Snow and Climate, Edited by R. L. Armstrong and E. Martin, Cambridge University Press, 129-136. [Snow Modelers Internet Platform]

     

    Articles Published in Refereed Journals and Technical Notes

      2013

    1. David, C. H., Z.-L. Yang, and S. Hong, 2013: Regional-scale river flow modeling using off-the-shelf runoff products, thousands of mapped rivers and hundreds of stream flow gauges, Environmental Modelling & Software, 42, 116–132. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2012.12.011.

    2. David, C. H., Z.-L. Yang, and J. S. Famiglietti, 2013: Quantification of the upstream-to-downstream influence in the Muskingum method, and implications for speedup in parallel computations of river flow, Water Resources Research, 49, 1–18, DOI: 10.1002/wrcr.20250.

    3. Shi, M. J.*, Z.-L. Yang, D. M. Lawrence, R. E. Dickinson, and Z. M. Subin, 2013: Spin-up processes in the community land model version 4 with explicit carbon and nitrogen components, Ecological Modelling, 263, 308–325, DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2013.04.008.

    4. Shi, M. J.*, Z.-L. Yang, and F. W. Landerer, 2013: Representing and evaluating the landscape freeze/thaw properties and their impacts on soil impermeability–hydrological processes in the community land model version 4J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 118, DOI:10.1002/jgrd.50576.

    5. Smith, V. B.*, C. H. David, M. B. Cardenas, and Z.-L. Yang, 2013: Climate, river network, and vegetation cover relationships across a climate gradient and their potential for predicting effects of decadal-scale climate change, Journal of Hydrology, 488, 101–109, DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.02.050.

      2012

    6. Jiang, X.Y.* and Z.-L. Yang, 2012: Projected changes of temperature and precipitation in Texas from downscaled global climate models, Climate Research, 53, 229-244, doi: 10.3354/cr01093. [pdf]

    7. Xu, Z.-F. and Z.-L. Yang, 2012: An improved dynamical downscaling method with GCM bias corrections and its validation with 30 years of climate simulations, J. Climate, 25, 6271-6286. [ http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00005.1 ]

    8. Xu, Y.S. and Z.-L. Yang, 2012: A method to study the impact of climate change on variability of river flow: an example from the Guadalupe River in Texas, Climatic Change, 113, 965-979, DOI 10.1007/s10584-011-0366-4. [http://www.springerlink.com/content/15031kg511100031/]

      2011

    9. David, C. H.*, F. Habets, and D. R. Maidment, Z.-L. Yang, 2011: RAPID applied to the SIM-France model, Hydrological Processes, 25, 3412-3425. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hyp.8070/abstract ]

    10. David, C. H.*, D. R. Maidment, G. Y. Niu, Z.-L. Yang, F. Habets and V. Eijkhout, 2011: River network routing on the NHDPlus dataset, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 12, 913-934, doi: 10.1175/2011JHM1345.1 [http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/2011JHM1345.1 ]

    11. Gent, P. R., G. Danabasoglu, L. Donner, M. M. Holland, E. C. Hunke, S. R. Jayne, D. M. Lawrence, R. B. Neale, P. J. Rasch, M. Vertenstein, P. H. Worley, Z.-L. Yang, and M. Zhang, 2011: The Community Climate System Model Version 4. J. Climate, 24, 4973-4991, doi: 10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1. [http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/2011JCLI4083.1 ]

    12. Lawrence, D. M., K. W. Oleson, M. G. Flanner, P. E. Thornton, S. C. Swenson, P. J. Lawrence, X. Zeng, Z.-L. Yang, S. Levis, K. Sakaguchi, G. B. Bonan, and A. G. Slater, 2011:  Parameterization improvements and functional and structural advances in version 4 of the Community Land Model. J. Adv.

      Model. Earth Syst., 3, DOI: 10.1029/2011MS000045. (27 pages) [pdf]

    13. Massei, N., B. Laignel, E. Rosero, A. Motelay-Massei, J. Deloffre, Z.-L. Yang, and A. Rossi, 2011: A wavelet approach to the short-term to pluri-decennal variability of streamflow in the Mississippi river basin from 1934 to 1998, International Journal of Climatology, 31, 31-43, DOI: 10.1002/joc.1995. [pdf]

    14. Niu, G.-Y., Z.-L. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, F. Chen, M. B. Ek, M. Barlage, A. Kumar, K. Manning, D. Niyogi, E. Rosero*, M. Tewari, and Y.-L. Xia, 2011: The community Noah land surface model with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP): 1. Model description and evaluation with local-scale measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D12109, doi:10.1029/2010JD015139. [pdf]

    15. Rosero, E.*, L. E. Gulden*, Z.-L. Yang, L. G. de Goncalves, G.-Y. Niu, and Y. H. Kaheil, 2011: Ensemble evaluation of hydrologically enhanced Noah-LSM: Partitioning of the water balance in high-resolution simulations over the Little Washita River Experimental Watershed, J. Hydrometeorology, 12, 45-64. [pdf]

    16. Su, H.*, Z.-L. Yang, G.-Y. Niu, and C. R. Wilson, 2011: Parameter estimation in ensemble based snow data assimilation: A Synthetic study, Advances in Water Resources, 34, 407-416. [pdf]

    17. Yang, Z.-L., G.-Y. Niu, K. E. Mitchell, F. Chen, M. B. Ek, M. Barlage, L. Longuevergne, K. Manning, D. Niyogi, M. Tewari, and Y.-L. Xia, 2011: The community Noah land surface model with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP): 2. Evaluation over global river basins, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D12110, doi:10.1029/2010JD015140. [pdf]

      2010

    18. Banner, J. L., C. S. Jackson, Z.-L. Yang, K. Hayhoe, C. Woodhouse, L. Gulden*, K. Jacobs, G. North, R. Leung, and W. Washington, X. Jiang*, R. Casteel, 2010: Climate change impacts on Texas water: A white paper assessment of the past, present and future and recommendations for action. Texas Water Journal, 1 (1), 1–19. [pdf]

    19. Chen, J. L., C. R. Wilson, B. D. Tapley, L. Longuevergne, Z. L. Yang, and B. R. Scanlon, 2010: Recent La Plata basin drought conditions observed by satellite gravimetry, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22108, doi:10.1029/2010JD014689. (12 pages) [pdf]

    20. Jiang, X.Y.*, Z.-L. Yang, H. Liao, and C. Wiedinmyer, 2010: Sensitivity of biogenic secondary organic aerosols to future climate change at regional scales: An online coupled simulation, Atmospheric Environment, 44, 4891-4907, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.08.032. [pdf]

    21. Su, H.*, Z.-L. Yang, R. E. Dickinson, C. R. Wilson, and G.-Y. Niu, 2010: Multisensor snow data assimilation at the continental scale: The value of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment terrestrial water storage information, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D10104, DOI: 10.1029/2009JD013035. (14 pages) [pdf]

    22. Oleson, K. W., Lawrence. D. M.,  Bonan, G. B., Flanner, M. G., Kluzek, E., Lawrence, P. J., Levis, S., Swenson, S. C., Thornton, P. E., et.al. (including Z.-L. Yang), 2010: Technical Description of version 4.0 of the Community Land Model (CLM).  NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-478+STR, 257 pp. [pdf]

    23. Rosero, E.*, Z.-L. Yang, T. Wagener, L. E. Gulden*, S. Yatheendradas, and G.-Y. Niu, 2010: Quantifying parameter sensitivity, interaction, and transferability in hydrologically enhanced versions of the Noah land surface model over transition zones during the warm season, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D03106, doi:10.1029/2009JD012035. (21 pages) [pdf]

    24.  

      2009

    25. Chen, J. L., C. R. Wilson, B. D. Tapley , Z.-L. Yang, G.-Y. Niu, 2009: 2005 drought event in the Amazon River basin as measured by GRACE and estimated by climate models, Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, B05404, doi:10.1029/2008JB006056. (9 pages) [pdf]
    26. David, C. H.*, D. J. Gochis, D. R. Maidment, W. Yu, D. N. Yates, and Z.-L. Yang, 2009a: Using NHDPlus as the Land Base for the Noah-distributed model, Transactions in GIS, 13(4), 363-377, DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9671.2009.01169.x. [pdf]
    27. Jiang, X.*, G.-Y. Niu, and Z.-L. Yang, 2009: Impacts of vegetation and groundwater dynamics on warm season precipitation over the Central United States, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D06109, doi:10.1029/2008JD010756. (15 pages) [pdf]
    28. Rosero, E.*, Z.-L. Yang, L. E. Gulden, G.-Y. Niu, and D. J. Gochis, 2009: Evaluating enhanced hydrological representations in Noah-LSM over transition zones: Implications for model development, J. Hydrometeorology, 10, 600-622. DOI:10.1175/2009JHM1029.1 [pdf] 
    29. Zhang, X. P., X. Y. Wang, Z.-L. Yang, G.-Y. Niu, and Z. C. Xie, 2009: Simulation of seasonal variations of stable water isotopes in land surface process model CLM, Chinese Science Bulletin, 54 (10), 1765-1772.
    30. Zhang, X. P., Z.-L. Yang, G.-Y. Niu, and X.-Y. Wang, 2009: Stable water isotope simulation in different reservoirs of Manaus, Brazil, by Community Land Model incorporating stable isotopic effect, International Journal of Climatology, 29 (5), 619-628. [pdf]

      2008

    31. Gulden, L.E.*, Z.-L. Yang, and G.-Y. Niu, 2008: Sensitivity of biogenic emissions simulated by a land-surface model to land-cover  representations,  Atmospheric Environment, 42, 4185-4197. [pdf]

    32. Gulden, L.E.*, E. Rosero*, Z.-L. Yang, T. Wagener, and G.-Y. Niu, 2008: Model performance, model robustness, and model fitness scores: A new method for identifying good land-surface models, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11404, doi:10.1029/2008GL033721. (7 pages) [pdf]

    33. Jiang, X.*, C. Wiedinmyer, F. Chen, Z.-L. Yang, and J. C.-F. Lo, 2008: Predicted impacts of climate and land use change on surface ozone in the Houston, Texas, area, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20312, doi:10.1029/2008JD009820. (16 pages) [pdf]

    34. Lo, J. C.-F., Z.-L. Yang, and R. Pielke Sr., 2008: Assessment of dynamical climate downscaling methods using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D09112, doi:10.1029/2007JD009216. (16 pages) [pdf]

    35. Lowrey, M. R. K.* and Z.-L. Yang, 2008: Assessing the capability of a regional-scale weather model to simulate extreme precipitation patterns and flooding in Central Texas, Weather and Forecasting, 23, 1102–1126. [pdf]

    36. Oleson, K. W., G.-Y. Niu, Z.-L. Yang, D. M. Lawrence, P. E. Thornton, P. J. Lawrence, R. Stöckli, R. E. Dickinson, G. B. Bonan, S. Levis, A. Dai, and T. Qian, 2008: Improvements to the Community Land Model and their impact on the hydrological cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G01021, doi:10.1029/2007JG000563. (26 pages) [pdf]

    37. Stöckli, R., D. M. Lawrence, G.-Y. Niu, K. W. Oleson, P. E. Thornton, Z.-L. Yang, G. B. Bonan, A. S. Denning, and S. W. Running, 2008: Use of FLUXNET in the Community Land Model development, J. Geophys. Res.,113, G01025, doi:10.1029/2007JG000562. (19 pages) [pdf]

    38. Su, H.*, Z.-L. Yang, G.-Y. Niu, and R. E. Dickinson, 2008: Enhancing the estimation of continental-scale snow water equivalent by assimilating MODIS snow cover with the ensemble Kalman filter, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D08120, doi:10.1029/2007JD009232. (12 pages)[pdf]

    39. Yuan, X., Z. Xie, J. Zheng, X. Tian, and  Z.-L. Yang, 2008: Effects of water table dynamics on regional climate: A case study over east Asian monsoon area,  J. Geophys. Res., 113, D21112, doi:10.1029/2008JD010180. (16 pages) [pdf]

      2007

    40. Gulden, L. E.*, E. Rosero*, Z.-L. Yang, M. Rodell, C.S. Jackson, G.-Y. Niu, P. J.-F. Yeh, and J. Famiglietti, 2007: Improving land-surface model hydrology: Is an explicit aquifer model better than a deeper soil profile? Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L09402, doi:10.1029/2007GL029804. (5 pages) [pdf] [AGU Journal Editor's Highlight]

    41. Gulden, L. E.*, Z.-L. Yang, and G.-Y. Niu, 2007: Interannual variation in biogenic emissions on a regional scale,  J. Geophys. Res., 112 (D14), D14103, 10.1029/2006JD008231. (12 pages) [pdf]

    42. Li, W. H., R. E. Dickinson, R. Fu, G.-Y. Niu, Z.-L. Yang, and J. G. Canadell, 2007: Future precipitation changes and their implications for tropical peatlands,  Geophys. Res. Lett.,  34, L01403, doi:10.1029/2006GL028364. (6 pages) [pdf]

    43. Niu, G.-Y., and Z.-L. Yang, 2007: An observation-based formulation of snow cover fraction and its evaluation over large North American river basins, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D21101, doi:10.1029/2007JD008674. (14 pages) [pdf]

    44. Niu, G.-Y., K.-W. Seo, Z.-L. Yang, C. Wilson, H. Su, J.L. Chen, and M. Rodell, 2007: Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L15704, doi:10.1029/2007GL030413. (5 pages) [pdf]

    45. Niu, G.-Y., Z.-L. Yang, R. E. Dickinson, L. E. Gulden, and H. Su, 2007: Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D07103, doi:10.1029/2006JD007522. (14 pages)[pdf]

      2006

       

    46. Dickinson, R.E., K.W. Oleson, G.B. Bonan, F. Hoffman, P. Thornton, M. Vertenstein, Z.-L. Yang, and X. Zeng, 2006: The Community Land Model and its climate statistics as a component of the Community Climate System Model, Journal of Climate, 19 (11), 2302–2324. [pdf]

    47. Fassnacht, S.R., Z.-L. Yang, K.R. Snelgrove, E.D. Soulis, and N. Kouwen, 2006: Effects of averaging and separating soil moisture and temperature in the presence of snow-cover in a SVAT and hydrological model for a southern Ontario, Canada, watershed, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7, 298-304. [pdf]

    48. Gulden, L.E.* and Z.-L. Yang,  2006: Development of species-based, regional emission capacities for simulation of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in land-surface models: An example from Texas, USA, Atmospheric Environment, 40(8), 1464-1479.  [pdf]

    49. Niu, G.-Y. and Z.-L. Yang, 2006: Assessing a land surface model's improvements with GRACE estimates, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07401, doi:10.1029/2005GL025555. (4 pages) [pdf]

    50. Niu, G.-Y. and Z.-L. Yang, 2006: Effects of frozen soil on snowmelt runoff and soil water storage at a continental scale, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 7 (5), 937-952. [pdf]

      2005

    51. Knebl, M.R.*, Z.-L. Yang, K. Hutchison, and D.R. Maidment, 2005: Regional scale flood modeling using NEXRAD rainfall, GIS, and HEC-HMS/RAS: A case study for the San Antonio River Basin summer 2002 storm event, Journal of Environmental Management, 75, 325-336. [pdf]

    52. Xia, Y., Z.-L. Yang, P.L. Stoffa, and M.K. Sen, 2005a: Optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of a land surface model: Sensitivity to parameter ranges and model complexities, Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 22 (1), 142-157. [pdf]

    53. Xia, Y., Z.-L. Yang, P.L. Stoffa, and M.K. Sen, 2005b: Using different hydrologic variables to assess the impacts of forcing errors on optimization and uncertainty analysis of a land surface model at a cold catchment, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, D01101, doi:10.1029/2004JD005130.

    54. (15 pages) [pdf
    55. Niu, G.-Y., Z.-L. Yang, R.E. Dickinson, and L.E. Gulden, 2005: A simple TOPMODEL-based runoff parameterization (SIMTOP) for use in global climate models, Journal of Geophysical Research,  110, D21106, doi:10.1029/2005JD006111. (15 pages) [pdf]

      2004

    56. Boone A., F. Habets, J. Noilhan, D. Clark, P. Dirmeyer, S. Fox, Y. Gusev, I. Haddeland, R. Koster, D. Lohmann, S. Mahanama, K. Mitchell, O. Nasonova, G.-Y. Niu, A. Pitman, J. Polcher, A. B. Shmakin, K. Tanaka, B. Van Den Hurk, S. Verant, D. Verseghy, P. Viterbo, and Z.-Y. Yang, 2004: The Rhone-Aggregation Land Surface Scheme Intercomparison Project: An Overview. Journal of Climate, 17, 187-208. [pdf]

    57. Etchevers, P., E. Martin, R. Brown, C. Fierz, Y. Lejeune, E. Bazile, A. Boone, Y. Dai, R. Essery, A. Fernandez, Y. Gusev, R. Jordan, V. Koren, E. Kowalcyzk, N.O. Nasonova, R.D. Pyles, A. Schlosser, A.B. Shmakin, T.G. Smirnova, U. Strasser, D. Verseghy, T. Yamazaki, Z.-L. Yang, 2004: Validation of the energy budget of an alpine snowpack simulated by several snow models (SnowMIP project), Annals of Glaciology, 38, 150-158.

    58. Niu, G.-Y. and Z.-L. Yang, 2004: The effects of canopy processes on snow surface energy and mass balances, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D23111, doi:10.1029/2004JD004884. (15 pages) [pdf]

    59. Oleson, K.W., Y. Dai, G. Bonan, M. Bosilovich, R. Dickinson, P. Dirmeyer, F. Hoffman, P. Houser, S. Levis, G.-Y. Niu, P. Thornton, M. Vertenstein, Z.-L. Yang, and X. Zeng, 2004: Technical Description of the Community Land Model (CLM), NCAR/TN-461+STR, 174 p. [Available at www.cgd.ucar.edu/tss/clm/distribution/clm3.0/index.html]

    60. Xia, Y., Z.-L. Yang, C. Jackson, P.L. Stoffa, and M.K. Sen, 2004: Impacts of data length on optimal parameter and uncertainty estimation of a land surface model, Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, D07101, doi:10.1029/2003JD004419. (13 pages) [pdf]

      2003

    61. Bowling, L.C., D.P. Lettenmaier, B. Nijssen, P.L. Graham, D. Clark, M.E. Maayar, R. Essery, S. Goers, F. Habets, B. van der Hurk, J. Jin, D. Kahan, D. Lohmann, S. Mahanama, D. Mocko, O. Nasonova, G.-Y. Niu, P. Samuelsson, A.B. Shmakin, K. Takata, D. Verseghy, P. Viterbo, X. Ma, Y. Xue, and Z.-L. Yang, 2003: Simulation of high latitude hydrological processes in the Torne-Kalix basin: PILPS Phase 2e. 1: Experimental description and summary intercomparisons, Global and Planetary Change, 38, 1-30. [pdf]

    62. Dai, Y., X. Zeng, R.E. Dickinson, I. Baker, G.B. Bonan, M.G. Bosilovich, A.S. Denning, P.A. Dirmeyer, P.R. Houser, G.-Y. Niu, K.W. Oleson, C.A. Schlosser, and Z.-L. Yang, 2003: The Common Land Model, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 84 (8), 1013-1023. [pdf]

    63. *Gochis, D.J., W.J. Shuttleworth, and Z.-L. Yang, 2003: Hydrometeorological response of the modeled North American monsoon to convective parameterization, J. Hydrometeor., 4, 235-250. [pdf]

    64. Luo, Lifeng, A. Robock, K. Y. Vinnikov, C. A. Schlosser, A. G. Slater, A. Boone, H. Braden, P. Cox, P. de Rosnay, R. E. Dickinson, Y. Dai, Q. Duan, P. Etchevers, A. Henderson-Sellers, N. Gedney, Y. M. Gusev, F. Habets, J. Kim, E. Kowalczyk, K. Mitchell, O. N. Nasonova, J. Noilhan, A. J. Pitman, J. Schaake, A. B.  Shmakin, T. G. Smirnova, P. Wetzel, Y. Xue, Z.-L.Yang, and Q.-C. Zeng, 2003: Effects of frozen soil on soil temperature, spring infiltration, and runoff: Results from the PILPS 2(d) experiment at Valdai, Russia. J. Hydrometeorology, 4, 334-351. [pdf]

    65. Nijssen, B., L.C. Bowling, D.P. Lettenmaier, D. Clark, M.E. Maayar, R. Essery, S. Goers, F. Habets, B. van der Hurk, J. Jin, D. Kahan, D. Lohmann, S. Mahanama, D. Mocko, O. Nasonova, G.-Y. Niu, P. Samuelsson, A.B. Shmakin, K. Takata, D. Verseghy, P. Viterbo, X. Ma, Y. Xia, Y. Xue, and Z.-L. Yang, 2003: Simulation of high latitude hydrological processes in the Torne-Kalix basin: PILPS Phase 2e. 2: Comparison of model results with observations, Global and Planetary Change, 38, 31-53. [pdf]

    66. Niu, G.-Y. and Z.-L. Yang, 2003: The Versatile Integrator of Surface and Atmosphere processes (VISA) Part II: Evaluation of three topography-based runoff schemes, Global and Planetary Change, 38, 191-208. [pdf]

    67. Yang, Z.-L. and G.-Y. Niu, 2003: The Versatile Integrator of Surface and Atmosphere Processes (VISA) Part 1: Model description, Global and Planetary Change, 38, 175-189. [pdf]

    68. Yang, Z.-L., D. Gochis, W.J. Shuttleworth, and G.-Y. Niu, 2003: The impacts of sea surface temperature on the North American monsoon: A GCM study, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(2), 1033, 10.1029/2002GL015628. (4 pages) [pdf]

    69. Zhou, L., R.E. Dickinson, Y. Tian, X. Zeng, Y. Dai, Z.-L. Yang, C.B. Schaaf, F. Gao, Y. Jin, A. Strahler, R.B. Myneni, H. Yu, W. Wu, and M. Shaikh, 2003: Comparison of seasonal and spatial variations of albedos from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Common Land Model, Journal of Geophysical Research, 108 (D15), 4488, doi:10.1029/2002JD003326. (20 pages) [pdf]